Julian E. Bailes is a Louisiana native who attended Louisiana State University attaining both his B.S. and M.D. degrees, following which he underwent neurosurgery residency training at Northwestern University Medical Center and a cerebrovascular fellowship at the Barrow Neurological Institute. He was Chief of Cerebrovascular Surgery at Allegheny-West Penn Hospital System for ten years, subsequently serving for eleven years as the Professor and Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery at West Virginia University School of Medicine where he specialized in cerebrovascular disease, stroke, brain tumors, and traumatic brain injury. For last five years he has been the Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery, Co-Director of the NorthShore Neurological Institute, and Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery at the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine.
Dr. Bailes is a recognized leader in the field of neurosurgery and the impact of brain injury on brain function. He is the Chair-Elect of the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care. He has been instrumental in the understanding of the clinical evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive degenerative disease found in individuals who have been subjected to multiple concussions and other forms of head injury. His laboratory has focused upon mechanisms and treatment of cerebral trauma, and his team has received NIH funding for TBI research. Since 1994, he has been a neurological consultant to the NFL Players’ Association (NFLPA), which has supported research on the effects of head injuries on professional athletes, and currently is on the NFLPA Mackey White Health and Safety Committee, and the NFL Head, Neck, and Spine Committee.!
He has been an advisor to the NCAA and also is Chairman of the Medical Advisory Committee for Pop Warner Football, the largest youth sports association in the U.S. In 2010 he was inducted into the Louisiana State University Hall of Distinction, the highest honor awarded to an alumnus. In 2016, Dr. Bailes was inducted to the Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame and received the Dave Dixon Louisiana Sports Leadership Award and also was inducted into the Northwestern State University Long Purple Line. In 2017 he was named by the Public Broadcasting System as a Louisiana Legend. In 2018 he received the Gold Football Award from Pop Warner Football, for his contributions to youth sports, and the Career Achievement Award by the National Headache Foundation.
Dr. Bailes has over 300 scientific publications concerning various aspects of neurological surgery, including four books on neurological sports medicine, and performs editorial duties for a number of medical journals. He is the Chair-Elect of the Joint Section of Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Dr. Bailes has been honored as one of the nation’s best surgeons for ten consecutive years in U.S. News & World Report’s “America’s Best Doctors” and was selected by Chicago Magazine as a Chicago top neurosurgeon. He played football for ten years, including in high school and at the collegiate level, was an Louisiana All-Star and All-State player, with his team winning a state championship his senior year. He has been a sideline physician at either the NFL or NCAA level for the last 25 years.
High omega-3 blood levels, and especially high DHA levels, lead to better brain function in young children aged 2 to 6, according to a new study published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.1 The study was specifically conducted with children in Northern Ghana, where people have poor access to foods rich in omega-3s DHA and EPA.
Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal?
Author(s): Breanne M Anderson and David WL Ma
Date Published: Aug-10-2009
The Influence of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid on Central Nervous System Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition.
Author(s): J. Thomas Brenna and Guan-Yeu Diau
Date Published: Jun-2007
Docosahexaenoic acid promotes hippocampal neuronal development and synaptic function.
Author(s): Dehua Cao, Karl Kevala, Jeffrey Kim, Hyun-Seuk Moon, Sang Beom Jun, David Lovinger, and Hee-Yong Kim
Date Published: Oct-2009
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and the brain: a review of the independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA.
Author(s): Simon C. Dyall
Date Published: Apr-15
A new review has found that increasing the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) during pregnancy reduces the risk of premature births.
Date Published: Nov-18
Association of Use of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids With Changes in Severity of Anxiety Symptoms
Author(s): Kuan-Pin Su, MD, PhD; Ping-Tao Tseng, MD; Pao-Yen Lin, MD, PhD
Date Published: Sep-18
Omega-3 DHA improves brain function in young children, according to study
Author(s): Sebastian Krawiec
Date Published: Aug-18
Reductions of intimate partner violence resulting from supplementing children with omega-3 fatty acids
Author(s): Portnoy J, Raine A, Liu J, Hibbeln JR
Date Published: May-18
Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Youths with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials and Biological Studies
Author(s): Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Kuan-Pin Su, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine M Pariante
Date Published: July-17
Fish oil component helps damaged brain, retina cells survive, shows research
Author(s): Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Date Published: Apr-17
Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on a Biomarker of Head Trauma in American Football.
Author(s): Oliver JM1, Jones MT, Kirk KM, Gable DA, Repshas JT, Johnson TA, Andréasson U, Norgren N, Blennow K, Zetterberg H.
Date Published: Jun-16
21 days of mammalian Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves aspects of neuromuscular function and performance in male athletes compared to olive oil placebo.
Author(s): Evan J. H. Lewis1*, Peter W. Radonic2, Thomas M. S. Wolever1 and Greg D. Wells2,3
Date Published: Jun-15
Reduction in behavior problems with omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8-16 years: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-grouptrial
Author(s): Adrian Raine1, Jill Portnoy2, Jianghong Liu3, Tashneem Mahoomed4, and Joseph Hibbeln5
1Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania
2Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania
3School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania
4Joint Child Health Project, Mauritius
5Section on Nutritional Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Date Published: May-15
Long-chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Optimization of Cognitive Performance
Author(s): Matthew F. Muldoon, MD, MPHa, Christopher M. Ryan, PhDb, Jeffrey K. Yao, PhD, FACBc, Sarah M. Conklin, PhDd, and Stephen B. Manuck, PhDe
Date Published: Nov-14
Regular fish consumption and age-related brain gray matter loss.
Author(s): Raji CA1, Erickson KI2, Lopez OL3, Kuller LH4, Gach HM2, Thompson PM5, Riverol M6, Becker JT7.
Date Published: Oct-14
Does Consumption of LC Omega-3 PUFA Enhance Cognitive Performance in Healthy School-Aged Children and throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Clinical Trials
Author(s): Welma Stonehouse
Date Published: Jul-14
n-3 LCPUFA improves cognition: the young, the old and the sick.
Author(s): Joffre C1, Nadjar A2, Lebbadi M3, Calon F4, Laye S5.
Date Published: Jul-14
Circulating Omega-3 Fatty acids and neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
Author(s): Merle BM1, Benlian P, Puche N, Bassols A, Delcourt C, Souied EH; Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 Study Group.
Date Published: Mar-14
The relationship of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with learning and behavior in healthy children: a review.
Author(s): Kuratko CN1, Barrett EC, Nelson EB, Salem N Jr.
Date Published: Jul-13
Higher RBC EPA + DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes WHIMS-MRI Study.
Author(s): James V. Pottala, Kristine Yaffe, Jennifer G. Robinson, Mark A. Espeland, Robert Wallace, William S. Harris
Date Published: Jan-14-2014
The DHA content of a cell membrane can have a significant influence on cellular behaviour and responsiveness to signals.
Author(s): Philip C. Calder
Date Published: Nov-15-2016
Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain.
Author(s): Joanne Bradbury
Date Published: May-10-2011
Red blood cell Omega-3 fatty acid levels and neurocognitive performance in deployed U.S. Servicemembers.
Author(s): Johnston DT1, Deuster PA, Harris WS, Macrae H, Dretsch MN.
Date Published: Jan-13
Docosahexaenoic Acid for Reading, Cognition and Behavior in Children Aged 7–9 Years: A Randomized, Controlled Trial (The DOLAB Study)
Author(s): Alexandra J. Richardson*, Jennifer R. Burton, Richard P. Sewell, Thees F. Spreckelsen, Paul Montgomery
Date Published: Sep-12
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augment the muscle protein anabolic response to hyperaminoacidemia- hyperinsulinemia in healthy young and middle aged men and women
Author(s): Gordon I. Smith1, Philip Atherton2, Dominic N. Reeds1, B. Selma Mohammed1, Debbie Rankin2, Michael J. Rennie2, and Bettina Mittendorfer1
Date Published: Sep-11
The effect of Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the inflammatory response to eccentric strength exercise
Author(s): Kelly B. Jouris, Jennifer L. McDaniel and Edward P. Weiss
Date Published: Sep-11
DHA-rich fish oil improves complex reaction time in female elite soccer players
Author(s): José F. Guzmán 1, Hector Esteve 1, Carlos Pablos 1, Ana Pablos 2, Cristina Blasco 1 and José A. Villegas 3
Date Published: Jun-11
Collaborative effects of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancement
Author(s): Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Date Published: Jan-11
Essential fatty acids and human brain.
Author(s): Chang CY1, Ke DS, Chen JY.
Date Published: Dec-09
Effect of Omega-3 and policosanol supplementation on attention and reactivity in athletes.
Author(s): Fontani G1, Lodi L, Migliorini S, Corradeschi F.
Date Published: Aug-09
The effects of ingestion of Omega-3 fatty acids on perceived pain and external symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness in untrained men.
Author(s): Tartibian B1, Maleki BH, Abbasi A.
Date Published: Mar-09
A randomised control trial in schoolchildren showed improvement in cognitive function after consuming a bread spread, containing fish flour from a marine source.
Author(s): Dalton A1, Wolmarans P, Witthuhn RC, van Stuijvenberg ME, Swanevelder SA, Smuts CM.
Date Published: Mar-09
Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Author(s): Stacey Ageranioti Bélanger MD PhD, Michel Vanasse MD, Schohraya Spahis MSc, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre MSc, Sarah Lippé PhD, François l’Heureux MSc, Parvis Ghadirian PhD, Catherine-Marie Vanasse PhD, Emile Levy MD PhD
Date Published: Feb-09
Effects of the fish-oil supplementation on the immune and inflammatory responses in elite swimmers.
Author(s): Andrade PM1, Ribeiro BG, Bozza MT, Costa Rosa LF, Tavares do Carmo MG.
Date Published: Oct-07
Long-chain Omega-3 fatty acid intake is associated positively with corticolimbic gray matter volume in healthy adults.
Author(s): Conklin SM1, Gianaros PJ, Brown SM, Yao JK, Hariri AR, Manuck SB, Muldoon MF.
Date Published: Jun-07
A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain.
Author(s): Goldberg RJ1, Katz J.
Date Published: May-07
Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Resting Heart Rate, Heart Rate Recovery After Exercise, and Heart Rate Variability in Men With Healed Myocardial Infarctions and Depressed Ejection Fractions
Author(s): James H. O’Keefe Jr, MD, Hussam Abuissa, MD, Antonio Sastre, PhD, David M. Steinhaus, MD, William S. Harris, PhD
Date Published: Apr-06
Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease
Author(s): Penny M. Kris-Etherton, William S. Harris, Lawrence J. Appel
and for the Nutrition Committee
Date Published: Nov-02
Author(s): William S. Harris, PhD, Juha Luo, PhD, James V. Pottala, PhD, Mark A. Expeland, PhD, Karen L Margolis, MD, MPH, JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH, Lu Wang, MD, PhD, Theodore M. Brasky, PhD, and Jennifer G. Robinson, MD, MPH
Date Published: Jan-18
Study Shows Omega-3 Levels Better Predictors of Death Risk than Serum Cholesterol
Date Published: Mar-18
Effects of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cardiovascular Mortality: The Importance of the Dose of DHA
Author(s): Barbara J. Meyer, Renate H. M. de Groot
Date Published: Nov-17
The Omega-3 Index and Inflammation: Results from the Framingham Study
Author(s): Tina Harris
Date Published: Jun-15
Prevalence of Abnormal Vitamin D Levels Among Division I NCAA Athletes
Author(s): Diego Villacis, MD, Anthony Yi, BS*, Ryan Jahn, BS, Curtis J. Kephart, MD, Timothy Charlton, MD, Seth C. Gamradt, MD, Russ Romano, MA, ATC, James E. Tibone, MD, George F. Rick Hatch, III, MD
Date Published: Feb-14
Effects of Vitamin E on Cognitive Performance during Ageing and in Alzheimer’s Disease
Author(s): Giorgio La Fata *, Peter Weber and M. Hasan Mohajeri
Date Published: Oct-14
Effect of ingestion of medium-chain triacylglycerols on moderate- and high-intensity exercise in recreational athletes.
Author(s): Nosaka N1, Suzuki Y, Nagatoishi A, Kasai M, Wu J, Taguchi M.
Date Published: Apr-09
Assistant Professor and Director,
Sport Science Center Kinesiology
Texas Christian University
Ph.D., Kinesiology, Texas A&M University; College Station, TX
M.Ed., Kinesiology, University of Texas at Austin; Austin, TX
BBA, Decision Sciences, University of North Texas; Denton, TX.
Omega-3 Index in Division I Collegiate American Football Athletes
Published May 30, 2018
Andrew T. Askow1, Anthony J. Anzalone1, Jason D. Stone1, Will Jennings1, Aaron Carbuhn2, Ryan Pinson3, Amy Bragg4, K. Michele Kirk1, David A. Gable1, Stephen F. Crouse5, FACSM, William S. Harris6, Jonathan M. Oliver1
1Texas Christian University, Fort Worth; TX, 2University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 3University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY; 4University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL; 5Texas A&M University, College Station, TX; 6OmegaQuant, LLC and University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD
American football athletes are exposed to repetitive head impacts (RHI) that, even in the absence of a clinically discernible head injury, result in quantifiable neurological damage. Pre-clinical studies utilizing rodent models indicate that traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause a reduction in neuronal omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FAs), specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Pre-injury administration of n-3FAs, however, has shown to effectively allay the pathological response to TBI. Furthermore, one study has demonstrated the potential neuroprotective effect of DHA supplementation in American football athletes evidenced by a marked reduction in blood biomarkers of axonal injury. Given that the American diet is scarce in the n-3FAs DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the potential neuroprotective effect of n-3FA supplementation may uniquely benefit American football athletes.
PURPOSE: This descriptive study sought to examine the omega-3 index, an indicator of n-3FA status, in American collegiate football athletes not supplementing with n-3FAs.
METHODS: One hundred twelve (n = 112) athletes participated in this study. Blood was obtained via finger stick and collected on blood spot cards pre-treated with an antioxidant cocktail. The dried blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography for fatty acid (FA) levels (expressed as a % of total blood FAs). A regression formula (r = 0.98) was used to estimate the percentage of DHA and EPA in red blood cell phospholipids (omega-3 index).
RESULTS: Levels of DHA, EPA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) were (mean ± SD) 2.27% ± 0.01% (range = 1.1% - 5.2%), 0.39% ± 0.00% (range = 0.2% - 1.2%) and 0.39% ± 0.00% (range = 0.1% - 1.0%), respectively. Mean omega-6 levels were 9.55 ± 1.72 (range = 4.5 – 13.9) times higher than n-3FAs levels. The mean omega-3 index was 4.35% ± 0.01% (range = 2.8% - 8.0%). Sub-optimal n-3FA levels (i.e., an index < 8.0%) were observed in 99.12% of participants.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that dietary intake of the n-3FAs DHA and EPA may not be adequate in American collegiate football athletes. Though the current evidence relates n-3FA deficiency to an increased risk for cardiovascular risk, American football athletes may derive neuroprotective benefit from n-3FA supplementation with little to no risk.
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